ROMAN METALLURGY IN LUSITANIA: SOURCES AND METAL FLUXES FROM REPUBLICAN PERIOD TO THE ROMAN EMPIRE
The western end of the Roman World was occupied by the Lusitania province having important urban centres such as Conimbriga, Augusta Emerita and Mirobriga. The lead isotope and elemental characterisation of lead pipes with a Roman Empire chronology and Late Republican lead sling bullets assigned the lead sources to the Iberian Pyrite Belt (argentiferous jarosite ores) and Sierra Morena and Ossa Morena Zone (galena ores). The elemental study of anthropomorphic attachments of situlae identified a diversity of metals and alloys without standardised compositions, namely copper, leaded copper, leaded bronze, gunmetal and leaded brass. The research evidences that the Roman copper-based metallurgical production was strongly influenced by economic concerns, namely with an important use of recycling of scrap metal, a pattern that is also present in the lead technology from Roman urban centres especially during the Empire.