ENVIREE project funded by ERA-MIN program (EU, FP7) is focused on a holistic perspective (from environmental systems, LCA, leaching techniques, separation technology to remediation) to recover REE with minimal environmental impact yet in an economically sustainable process. After the identification of the tailings with favourable conditions to contain metals (Covas and Cumieira, Northern Portugal) a more detailed chemical and mineralogical characterization of these heterogeneous materials was done during 2017. Training and dissemination headed by C2TN has been a main achievement of this project through the organization of Workshops and Summer Courses on Rare Earth Elements, recovery and environmental issues.
In the Portuguese territory, the complex typologies of gold jewellery of the Early Iron Age (c. 850-400 BC) differ significantly from the simple types of the Chalcolithic (c. 3000-2000 BC). This typological evolution was found to be related with two technological developments: the use of less expensive and more workable resources by alloying Au with Ag (up to 42%) and/or Cu (up to 6%), and the use of autogenous welding and copper-rich solder alloys that allowed the manufacture of intricate shapes by joining different components and filigree decorations.